The preventive strategies apply to all STD’s. The most effective ways to prevent sexual transmission of STD’s include:

•Avoiding exposure

•Treating infections that can increase vulnerability

•Vaccinating when applicable, e.g. to obtain protection against viral infections such as hepatitis B and some types of HPV

•Proper use of condoms to reduce contact

Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, transmission can still occur. Condoms only provide protection when used properly as a barrier and only to and from the covered area. The spermicide nonoxynol-9 has been shown not to protect against HIV or other STD’s. Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STD’s and sexual contact should be avoided in case of open bleeding wounds. A number of condoms in assorted sizes should be available in the ships medical chest.69

Proper usage entails:

•Not putting the condom on too tightly at the end, and leaving 1.5 cm room at the tip

•Not wearing the condom too loosely

•Avoiding inverting a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not

•Avoiding condoms made of substances other than latex or polyurethane, as they don't protect against HIV

•Avoiding oil based lubricants with latex condoms, as oil can produce holes in them

•Discarding used condoms and their contents

•Using a new condom for each act of intercourse