The final release of energy leading to an injury is the last stage in a chain of event. There are a number of approaches to the analysis of causes. Some are concerned with attributing blame or liability for the event, others are tools that can aid the understanding and analysis of the antecedents to the injury with the aim of prevention, while others are used as a theoretical basis for approaches to prevention. These are noted here because they are common currency among other professional groups and familiarity with them will aid discussions.


  1. Swiss cheese model (Reason)
  2. Haddon’s matrix
  3. Fault tree analysis
  5. Hazam and hazop studies
  6. Heinrich’s triangle
  7. The iceberg effect – safety economics
  8. Safety culture and behaviour